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Foot and Vascular Surgery

Vascular surgeryDiabetic vascular disease refers to the development of blockages in the blood vessels and muscular arteries or hardening of the arteries (called Atherosclerosis), caused by collection of plaque (fatty deposits of fat and cholesterol) throughout the body.  Over time, these deposits result in obstructed blood flow, thus diminishing the amounts of oxygen and nutrients that reach the target organ. This plaque may also cause the formation of clots, resulting in stroke. Diabetics are more prone to hardening of the arteries, which get narrowed due to collection of plaque  caused by high cholesterol levels. These can cause clots and blockages, leading to strokes and heart attack

Vascular disease most commonly affects the arteries of the heart (cardiovascular), brain (cerebrovascular) and legs (peripheral). Peripheral Artery Disease refers to the obstruction of large arteries not within the coronary vasculature or in the brain, but to atherosclerotic blockages found in the lower limbs.

Causes & Risk Factors

The causes are unknown, but several risk factors are as follows:

  • Smoking
  • Advancing age
  • Family history of vascular disease, angina, heart attack or stroke
  • Being overweight
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Lack of exercise
  • Diabetes
  • Being male
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol levels
  • Stress

A vascular surgery specialist evaluates the disease on the basis of physical examination,  symptoms and medical history. Some advanced tests like doppler ultrasound, CT scan, MRI and angiogram are needed. The symptoms are -

  • Severe leg pain and cramps
  • Pale toenails
  • Dangling legs become bluish
  • Lower-leg, toe, or ankle ulcers
  • Gangrene (in severe cases)


Treatment options of peripheral artery disease include:

  • Bypass grafting surgery
  • Vascular surgery
  • taking good care of the feet,
  • daily walking program,
  • eliminating or reducing the blockage non surgically with medication,
  • bypass surgery to shunt blood around the clogged area,
  • quitting smoking.


Facilities Available

  • Advanced evaluation tests like Doppler Ultrasound, and Angiography
  • Surgical procedures for retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy associated with diabetes
  • Bypass grafting surgery for peripheral artery disease and Vascular surgery
  • Angioplasty and stenting to remove the blockages in the hardened arteries of legs
  • Lifestyle modification counseling

 
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